Disposable Medical Sensors Market Value Chain and Forecast 2015-2025

Disposable medical sensors are portable scanning devices intended for diagnosis, patient monitoring and therapeutic processes. Disposable medical sensors are designed to detect and provide information in the form of electrical signals by converting patient’s various forms of stimulations. Disposable medical sensors facilitate continuous patient monitoring through the measurement of basic vital signs, for instance heart rate, breathing rate, blood oxygenation level, pulse rate and temperature. Disposable medical sensors are used in different specialties such as cardiology, radiology, general medicine, neurology, ophthalmology, urology and so on. Currently the trend witnessed in the global disposable medical sensors market is the development of products in ablation treatments for cancer, cardiac arrhythmia, point of care diagnosis, pain free glucose monitoring, wireless insulin delivering procedures, etc.

Disposable Medical Sensors Market: Drivers and Restraints

Disposable medical sensors market is projected to grow rapidly due to increasing incidence of chronic diseases such as cancer, acute myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus particularly in geriatric population, as well as increasing number of postoperative rehabilitation patients across the globe. Major drivers for the disposable medical sensors market are technological advancements and increasing innovations in the development of point of care medical sensors for diagnosis and monitoring outside hospitals. At the same time increasing the need of remote patient monitoring and next generation disposable medical sensors such as painless diabetes monitors, wearable wrist watches, etc. are other opportunities to manufacturers. Large number of regulatory approvals for biodegradable sensors are also booming the global disposable medical sensors market. However lack of adequate reimbursement policies for novel technologies and stringent regulatory procedures are the major factors that can hamper the global disposable medical sensors growth over the forecast period.

Disposable Medical Sensors Market: Segmentation

The global disposable medical sensors market has been classified on the basis of application, placement type, type of sensors, end user and region.

Based on application, the global disposable medical sensors market is segmented into the following:

  • Patient monitoring
    • Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring
    • Implantable Loop Recorder
    • Cardiac Monitoring Electrode
    • Pulse Oximeter
    • Smart Pill
    • Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring
  • Diagnostics
    • Capsule Endoscopes
    • HIV Test Strip Sensors
    • Pregnancy Test Strip Sensors
    • Drug And Alcohol Test Strip Sensors
    • Blood Glucose Test Strip Sensors
    • Immunoassay Biosensors
  • Therapeutics
    • Insulin Pump Sensors
    • Dialysis Sensors
    • Cardiac Therapeutic Electrode Sensors
    • Cardiac Catheter Sensors

Based on Placement Type, the global disposable medical sensors market is segmented into the following:

  • Implantable sensors
  • Invasive sensors
  • Ingestible sensors
  • Strip sensors
  • Wearable sensors

Based on Type of Sensors, the global disposable medical sensors market is segmented into the following:

  • Biosensors
  • Accelerometers
  • Image sensors
  • Pressure sensors
  • Temperature sensors
  • MR Position Sensors
  • Force Sensors
  • Humidity Sensors

Based on End User, the global disposable medical sensors market is segmented into the following:

  • Hospitals
  • Home Care
  • Diagnostic Laboratories
  • Clinics

Disposable Medical Sensors Market: Overview

The United States represents the largest market for disposable medical device sensors in North America, followed by Canada. Europe is expected to be the second largest region in the global disposable medical sensors market. Germany, France, and the U.K. are estimated to account for a major share in the Europe disposable medical sensors market over the forecast period. APAC is anticipated to represent a high growth rate in the next five years. By application type, monitoring devices particularly cardiac pacemakers and blood glucose monitorsare the dominant segment across globe due to high incidences of diabetes and cardiac diseases. The diagnostic strips for HIV test, pregnancy test, blood glucose test and immunological test are anticipated to hold a high collective share in the global disposable medical sensors market. By end use, the hospitals and home care segments are projected to account for around 50% share in the global disposable medical sensors market and the trend is forecast to continue through the forecast period. By placement of sensors type, wearable sensors and strip sensors are estimated to register above average CAGR over the forecast period owing to its affordable price due to miniaturization of equipment.

This New At-Home Fertility Test Is Perfect for People Who Want Kids—But Not Today

I am a 31-year-old woman who is married and living in New York City, and I definitely want kids one day. I grew up in a large family just outside of Chicago, and almost all of my high school friends are married with children. But I have spent the past decade prioritizing my career as a magazine editor, something I’m still trying to establish before my prime midnight-oil-burning years are up. At which point, I’ll start thinking about a family—exact time to be determined.

It’s a certain type of drive that runs rampant in my cohort of working millennial women: rise up in your career first, consider the mind/body/wellness/fertile factor second (or third, as evidenced by last year’s number of births, which hit an all-time low since 1987, especially among those in their 30s). And while I can imagine the working mom scene perfectly—me, donning a cutting-edge breast pump under my Off-White suit, taking calls or making edits with my office door closed (Note to self: Must get office before I get pregnant)—the reality of how many eggs I’ll have left in my basket at that time may be a lot less glamorous.

Nevertheless, it’s a thought I felt comfortable designating for “later’—until this summer, when an email about an affordable at-home fertility test that measures your reproductive hormones and tells you things like when you can expect to go through menopause hit my inbox. A deadline? Deadlines I can do.

Called Modern Fertility, it’s a startup that, in addition to testing for nine hormones (including your anti-Mullerian hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone—which is also tracked in over-the-counter ovulation predictor tests), aims to arm women with knowledge surrounding their reproductive health so they can one day consider such options as egg freezing and in vitro fertilization should they need to, and before it’s too late.

“People talk about infertility all the time,” says Afton Vechery, the company’s cofounder and CEO, who spent time at 23andMe, as well as a private equity firm, where she often worked with fertility clinics and got a first look at how inopportune and costly in-office reproductive testing can be for some individuals. “But people rarely talk about fertility. That’s what we’re interested in.”

It’s an empowering thought—my fertility versus my infertility, and for a fraction of the cost—and one that doesn’t feel intimidating nor too far away. I can do this, I thought, as I opened up the all-white box filled with two finger-testing pricks on the morning of my third day of my period (an important time stamp, as hormone levels fluctuate throughout your monthly cycle). Not one for blood, I felt surprisingly at ease when poking my finger twice and sealing my test strips in the postage-marked packaging, all from the privacy of my living room couch.

And yet it’s precisely that DIY collection method, now increasingly popular among consumers seeking everything from personalized fitness recommendations via a DNA kit to HIV screening results, that worries some experts. Taken out of context, fertility results may prove particularly murky. “If anything comes back out of the average or normal parameters, it may cause unnecessary angst,” says Alexis Greene, M.D., a reproductive endocrinologist and fertility specialist at Westmed Medical Group in Westchester, New York, who sees numerous women struggling with their fertility as well as reproductive disorders, like irregular periods or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). “Fertility is not just numbers; it’s a big spectrum that encompasses a lot of different things beyond lab work, such as age, prior history, if you’ve ever been pregnant before, and what your ovaries look like on an ultrasound.”

And while Modern Fertility doesn’t offer a way to see how many follicles you have in your ovarian reserve, let alone actual medical advice—though its staff of nurses will walk you through your results and help you link up with a specialist should anything come back abnormal—the company attempts to do its due diligence by asking your age, prior diagnoses, whether you’re taking birth control, and how regular your periods are before looking at you from a hormonal perspective.

Less than a week after sending in my test, I received an email with the subject line “Your Modern report is ready” and a link to my results as well as an invite to a private webinar with Jill, the company’s fertility nurse. With a huge pit in my stomach, I double clicked the provided link and opened onto a page that stated my ovarian reserve, ovulation, and general body hormone levels. A rush of heat hit my ears when I read that I was, almost across the board, average.

Average? Average to my type A mind is below average; not excellent; doomed; dried up; dusty; Jan versus Marcia Brady! I speed-read through the results: I have an average number of eggs for my age; I may hit menopause around the average age; I may collect an average amount of eggs in IVF or egg freezing; “Your Free thyroxine (fT4) is outside of the normal range. Not to worry, your doctor can help balance things out.” I shut the computer and avoided setting up a call with Jill for another two days.

“While many of us are seeking excellence in everything we do, in reproductive health, average is normal, and normal is good—that’s where you want to be,” says Jill Kerwin, R.N., B.S.N., a certified holistic nurse who struggled with infertility herself and ended up having two children with the help of IVF and a donor.

And then, just as I’m starting to feel slightly better, she adds: “That said, the sooner you have kids, from a reproductive perspective, the better, because you’re losing eggs, aging, and being exposed to more toxins every single day.” She suggested I start conversations with my ob-gyn, and perhaps ask for an additional thyroid ultrasound, as low levels of fT4, which helps the body expand energy, may get in the way of fertility down the line. (Cue the unnecessary angst . . . now.)

Take it with a grain of salt, urges Shannon Tomita, a fellow in gynecologic oncology at Mount Sinai Hospital who, while agreeing with Greene that fertility is a lot more complicated than a few blood tests, sees the positive side to a test like this, too. “Anything that makes women be more proactive and less reactive, and gets them in to see their doctor, is a good thing. Because there is really no substitute to seeing someone who can talk to you directly about all the questions you may have.”

Currently on the hunt for an ob-gyn who my husband and I see in our fertility future, so we can speak and perhaps act on my results, our exact timeline is still to be determined—but there’s at least one major change worth noting: I now officially answer that common question with, “Yes, we’re trying.” And it feels pretty empowering.

Banker stabs his 29-year old wife 45 times, wrongly thinking she gave him HIV, but only got to 25 years in prison

He killed her because he thought she infected him with HIV, he coerced his 5-year old daughter to help clean her mother’s blood. It turns out she was HIV-negative.

Banker thinks his wife gave him HIV, so he stabs her 45 times

This October, Khazamula Emmanuel Baloyi was only sentenced to 25 years in prison by the Gauteng High Court, Pretoria in the matter of the State v Baloyi (CC168/17) [2018] ZAGPPHC 19 despite stabbing his wife all over her body in January 2017.

Their 5-year old daughter, Amukelani helped clean her mother’s blood and saw her mother’s body.

Baloyi had been diagnosed with AIDS some days earlier, so he went home and accused his wife of infecting him with the disease, he also accused her of infidelity.

Post-mortem results show that she was in fact HIV-negative. She was only 29 when she died.

According to court documents of the Gauteng High Court, the messy background story

Mr. Baloyi and the deceased (his wife) met each other during January 2010 and subsequently got married on 28 November 2015. At that stage, both were employed. Mr. Baloyi was employed by ABSA Bank and the deceased was a qualified nursing sister at Steve Biko Hospital.

The deceased got pregnant and the family started the lobola negotiations — payment of bride price — during September 2011. On December 8, 2012, a ceremony to celebrate the completion of lobola negotiations and payment was held in Limpopo.

They lived together since 2011 and decided to have their white wedding on November 28, 2015.

They were married for approximately 15 (fifteen) months before Mr. Baloyi murdered his wife in January 2017. Mr. Baloyi has two daughters called Amukelani Baloyi, born on October 24, 2011, and Nkateko Maphuti Baloyi born in June 2014 and that both have been in the care of their maternal grandmother since January 7, 2017.

Mr. Baloyi told a social worker, Mrs. J.C. Wolmarans, who compiled a Psycho Social Pre-Sentence Report and also testified in court that the relationship has been under strain since they moved in together.

The witness then listed certain events to substantiate such strain in the marriage

Mrs. Wolmarans states that during 2012, Mr. Baloyi was employed by ABSA Bank. The conflict in their relationship affected his concentration and he was referred to counseling by his supervisor. Notwithstanding this setback, the families with the couple had a ceremony of welcoming in Limpopo.

During 2013, Mr. Baloyi struggled at his workplace, as he struggled to concentrate. He resigned at the end of October 2013, as he feared that he might be dismissed.

During 2014, the family experienced a few setbacks; a broken down vehicle, housebreaking and the deceased (Mrs. Baloyi) had surgery. Mr. Baloyi described this period as the best time of his marriage.

During 2015, they got married and it was also a happy time until two weeks after the marriage when the deceased and both children went to her family.

During 2016, the deceased entered a three-year course and attended class at night. This apparently led to the relationship deteriorating and subsequently to Mr. Baloyi filing for a divorce. Then, Mr. Baloyi was requested by both families not to proceed with the divorce.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market 2021: Global Market Size, Competitive Landscape, Key Country Analysis

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market report analyses the market potential for each geographical region based on the growth rate, macroeconomic parameters, consumer buying patterns, and market demand and supply scenarios. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market also provides historical & futuristic cost, revenue, demand and supply data, business strategies, growth analysis.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market giving the detailed analysis of the driving factors, trends, challenges met by vendors, regional analysis, segment by type, applications of whole industry. Experts forecast the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits industry to grow at a CAGR of 7.23% between 2017 to 2021.

Key Vendors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market: INSTI , F Hoffmann-La Roche, Alere, Abbott, AccuBioTech, Access Bio, Ameritek, ALLDIAG, Atomo Diagnostics, Autobio Diagnostics, Beckman Coulterand many more.

Questions Answered in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market Report: –

  • What are the key factors driving, Analysis by Applications and Countries Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market?
  • What are Dynamics, This Overview Includes Analysis of Scope, and price analysis of top Vendors Profiles of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits?
  • Who are the opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits space? Business Overview by Type, Applications, Gross Margin and Market Share
  • Who are Opportunities, Risk and Driving Force of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market? Knows Upstream Raw Materials Sourcing and Downstream Buyers
  • What will the market growth rate, Overview, and Analysis by Type of Market in 2021?
  • What are the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits market opportunities, market risk and market overview of the Market?

List of Exhibits in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market Report:

  • Exhibit 01: Product offerings
  • Exhibit 02: Impact of drivers
  • Exhibit 03: Impact of drivers and challenges
  • Exhibit 04: Key countries in each region
  • Exhibit 05: Market shares by geographies 2017
  • Exhibit 06: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Test Kits Market shares by geographies 2021
  • Exhibit 07: Geographical Segmentation by revenue 2017

Horror as toddler, two, stabs himself with ‘dirty’ needle he found while playing underneath a table at Wetherspoons pub – which offered his mother a £50 voucher to say sorry

  • Amy Bate’s son Oscar found the needle underneath a table at the pub yesterday 
  • She says she felt sick after realising he’d pricked himself with the used needle 
  • He had to have blood taken and hepatitis test after incident at pub in St Helens 
  • Wetherspoons has apologised and offered the family a £50 gift voucher  

A toddler had to undergo a HIV test after finding a ‘dirty’ needle under a table at a Wetherspoons pub.

Amy Bate took her two-year-old son Oscar to The Glass House in St Helens, Merseyside for a family meal yesterday afternoon.

But she was horrified when he emerged from under the table with the used needle.

The youngster had to be rushed to hospital in tears where had he had his blood taken and a hepatitis vaccination.

Amy Bate (pictured) took her two-year-old son Oscar (pictured) to The Glass House in St Helens, Merseyside for a family meal yesterday afternoon but she was horrified when he emerged from under their table with a used needle

Pictured: Mother Amy Bate with her two-year-old son Oscar and her baby

Ms Bate, 23, said: ‘My son climbed under the table and picked up something that looked like a dark blue marker pen lid and I told him to put it down and that it was dirty.

‘He put it down but quickly picked it back up and said he wanted to show Daddy.

‘As he said that he said ‘there’s a needle in it’. So I grabbed it off him and he said ‘ouch, that hurt me’. Then I looked and there was a needle inside.

‘I felt sick literally as soon as I realised he had been pricked by it and knew we had to take him the hospital straight away as my first thought was oh my god, what if he’s got HIV?

‘We had to keep a brave face for him but it was absolutely horrible to see our baby going through that when he should never have had to.’

Little Oscar was left ‘distressed’ by the ordeal, which saw his parents take him to hospital, where he had to have his blood taken as well as a hepatitis vaccination in his leg.

It is not clear what type of needle it was. Ms Bate claims all she knows is it had been used.

She added: ‘Oscar was very distressed at the hospital, as he had to have his bloods taken out of his hand and bled a lot so this was distressing for him then he had a hepatitis vaccine in his leg which also made him really distressed.

‘He’s doing okay now, but he keeps talking about ‘the needle’ and remembering the hospital and having the injections done. This should never have happened.’

The incident now means Oscar will need to have repeat vaccines in three weeks’ time and then have repeated blood tests every three months.

A JD Wetherspoon spokesman said: ‘The manager at the pub and the company apologise wholeheartedly to the lady and her family.

‘This is a horrible incident and obviously shouldn’t happen. The lady and her child shouldn’t have had to go through the trauma of having an HIV test at the hospital.

‘The manager at the pub would like to offer the lady a £50 gift card for use at the pub. This in no way underestimates the situation that she faced.’

 Kat Smithson, Director of Policy and Campaigns at NAT (National AIDS Trust) said: “There have been no cases anywhere in the world of somebody contracting HIV through a needle stick injury from a needle discarded in a public place.

“The problem of discarded needles is a concern for many people who would like public places to be safe and pleasant, particularly for children. At the same time, it is important to reassure the public regarding HIV risk. HIV can be transmitted through the direct sharing of injecting drug equipment, however, HIV is a very delicate virus that does not survive outside the body well and therefore risk from a discarded needle is extremely low.

The incident happened at The Glass House Wetherspoons pub in St Helens, Merseyside 

On-demand HIV testing now available at all Interior Health labs

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HIV testing in the Interior is now more accessible.

Earlier this week, Interior Health (IH) announced it’s expanding its HIV on-demand testing program. The program allows patients to get an HIV test without having to visit their physician or nurse practitioner.

It launched in 2016, in partnership with Valley Medical Laboratories in the Okanagan, and now the service will be available at all IH labs.

Patients can fill out a lab requisition on their own and take it to the lab, ask the lab for the test to be done, or ask to have the test added to existing bloodwork being ordered, according to a press release.

“Interior Health is committed to providing accessible and patient-centered care for people in ways that respect their dignity and privacy,” said Doug Cochrane, Interior Health board chair, in the release. “By eliminating barriers to testing, and enabling people to be tested on their own terms, we are making it easier for individuals who test positive for HIV to access the care they need.”

Patients who request a test at an IH lab will be given information about the test and the follow-up process for both negative and positive results. Results are available two weeks after the test occurs.

There is no additional follow up for patients who test negative, notes the release.

“Patients who test positive will be contacted by a nurse who will provide support, education, follow-up care and referral to a physician when needed.”

Non-nominal testing for HIV is not done through the on-demand program. If a patient wishes to test without their name, this can be done through a family physician or nurse practitioner.

Prevalence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: a systemic review and meta-analysis

Despite their mandate to offer HIV testing to all attendees, sexual health clinics in England are less likely to offer a test to older patients, according to an analysis of Public Health England data recently published in the International Journal of STD & AIDS.

Attendees in their late twenties had the highest likelihood of being offered HIV testing, with the proportion of attendees who were offered testing declining with increasing age.

In the 15-49 years age group, HIV testing was offered to 92% of men who have sex with men (MSM), 92% of heterosexual men and 85% of heterosexual women. For people aged over 50 years, offer rates fell to 88%, 85% and 78% respectively.

The decline in the offer of HIV testing was steepest for older heterosexual women. In those aged over 70 years, HIV testing was offered to 87% of MSM, 76% of heterosexual men and 52% of women.

While clinicians might be reluctant to offer a test because they think older patients are more likely to refuse, this concern is not backed up by the data. The strongest determinant of acceptance of the offer was sexual orientation.

  • Men who have sex with men: 96% of those under the age of 50 and 94% over 50 accepted the offer.
  • Heterosexual men: 85% of those under 50 and 83% of those over 50 accepted the offer.
  • Heterosexual women: 75% of those under 50 and 77% of those over 50 accepted the offer.

Low rates of HIV testing among older patients in primary care and other general health settings might be explained by clinicians not seeing sexual health as relevant in this age group, or expecting their older patients to be uncomfortable talking about sexually transmitted infections. However, this should not be a factor when older people attend sexual health clinics.

National and international HIV testing guidelines recommend that all people attending sexual health clinics are offered an HIV test. Moreover, people over the age of 50 are more likely to be diagnosed with HIV at a late stage, with a CD4 cell count below 350 cells/mm3, than younger people.

The figures come from 1.4 million attendance records from sexual health clinics in 2014. A comparison of the years between 2009 and 2014 did show some improvement over time, but the lower rate of HIV testing in older people is likely to contribute to late diagnosis in this age group.

Older people less likely to be offered an HIV test in English sexual health clinics

Despite their mandate to offer HIV testing to all attendees, sexual health clinics in England are less likely to offer a test to older patients, according to an analysis of Public Health England data recently published in the International Journal of STD & AIDS.

Attendees in their late twenties had the highest likelihood of being offered HIV testing, with the proportion of attendees who were offered testing declining with increasing age.

In the 15-49 years age group, HIV testing was offered to 92% of men who have sex with men (MSM), 92% of heterosexual men and 85% of heterosexual women. For people aged over 50 years, offer rates fell to 88%, 85% and 78% respectively.

The decline in the offer of HIV testing was steepest for older heterosexual women. In those aged over 70 years, HIV testing was offered to 87% of MSM, 76% of heterosexual men and 52% of women.

While clinicians might be reluctant to offer a test because they think older patients are more likely to refuse, this concern is not backed up by the data. The strongest determinant of acceptance of the offer was sexual orientation.

  • Men who have sex with men: 96% of those under the age of 50 and 94% over 50 accepted the offer.
  • Heterosexual men: 85% of those under 50 and 83% of those over 50 accepted the offer.
  • Heterosexual women: 75% of those under 50 and 77% of those over 50 accepted the offer.

Low rates of HIV testing among older patients in primary care and other general health settings might be explained by clinicians not seeing sexual health as relevant in this age group, or expecting their older patients to be uncomfortable talking about sexually transmitted infections. However, this should not be a factor when older people attend sexual health clinics.

National and international HIV testing guidelines recommend that all people attending sexual health clinics are offered an HIV test. Moreover, people over the age of 50 are more likely to be diagnosed with HIV at a late stage, with a CD4 cell count below 350 cells/mm3, than younger people.

The figures come from 1.4 million attendance records from sexual health clinics in 2014. A comparison of the years between 2009 and 2014 did show some improvement over time, but the lower rate of HIV testing in older people is likely to contribute to late diagnosis in this age group.

HIV tests can now be done at home

People will now be able to test for the disease at home

Digital sexual and reproductive health social enterprise, SH:24 has announced that it will be offering free HIV self-tests that can be done at home.

SH:24 has produced over 200,000 STI self-test kits since 2015 and has won awards for its service.

Now, SH:24 is providing free HIV testing to better understand what influences an individual when choosing a testing kit.

There are currently two types of self-test kits for HIV, one involves taking a prick of blood from a finger and will provide results in 15 minutes. The other involves the individual providing 15 drops of blood in a tiny pot and returning it to the lab.

Those who take the test will be asked to fill out a short survey, the data from which will be used to inform future HIV prevention research and service development at SH:24.

Individuals who choose to take the self-test at home will receive their results via text or over the phone by one of SH:24’s trained clinicians. Where necessary, patients will be referred for further treatment.

Everyone who takes the home test will receive a follow up call from an SH:24 employee offering advice.

Alongside the test, SH:24 offers 24 hour support for individuals.

HIV treatment has improved dramatically during recent years with huge strides being made in testing and treatment. According to Public Health England in 2016 new HIV diagnoses decreased, despite the same levels of testing. Home testing has helped with this progress.

HIV Prevention: Bridging The Gap Between Research And Impact

We are at an incredible moment in the history of the HIV/AIDS response, which reflected in the vibrancy of the HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P 2018) – the only global scientific conference focused on the fast-growing field of biomedical HIV prevention research. Today, the latest research in different areas of biomedical HIV prevention, including vaccines, rings, microbicides and other female-controlled forms of prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and long-acting delivery systems, offer the greatest promise of significantly slowing the toll of the disease.

And yet we are far away from ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030, and are also falling short of achieving the 90-90-90 UNAIDS targets by 2020.

While there has been immense progress in the field of HIV science, we are yet to see its public health impact on the ground.

“It is not just about R&D but about R&D and D – research and development, and delivery. If you take any one of those three letters out, we fail. Each of them is equally important. Undoubtedly, it is difficult to successfully complete the clinical study for a new product, but delivering that product to the people for whom it was designed, is harder.

Whether it is the ARVs, PrEP, vaginal rings, multipurpose prevention tools like the female condom, we see a huge gap in delivery”, said Mitchell Warren, Executive Director of AVAC, in an exclusive interview given to CNS onsite at the HIVR4P Conference being held in Madrid.

EVERY NEW INFECTION OF HIV COULD HAVE BEEN AVERTED:

Till to date, more than 35 million people have died of HIV-related illnesses, and another 37 million people are living with HIV worldwide. In 2017 alone there were 1.8 million new infections (87,580 in India) and 940,000 deaths (69,110 in India). Governments have promised to end AIDS by 2030.

But the new cases graph is not dipping towards that steeply enough. Why are we failing to prevent new HIV transmissions?

According to Mitchell, “We are failing for a number of reasons. One is our failure to translate science into programmes fast enough. The second is the fundamental failure of the system in which people who need prevention and treatment most are least likely to be able to access it. To bridge this wide access gap we need to do two things simultaneously. We clearly need additional prevention options.

But more importantly, we need to simultaneously focus on our (delivery) systems. Countries need to build prevention programmes that respect people’s choices and needs and are capable to deliver any new prevention method. If there is anything we need to do differently, it is that we need to listen to the people who are in need of the product(s).

We have to act upon what people want, when they want and how they want it. We have to listen to them in their diversity and respect their different choices. One size will never fit all. A successful HIV/AIDS response is the one that takes in all the imperfect things we have and bundles them together in the most perfect programme.”

PROMOTING FEMALE-INITIATED PREVENTION METHODS:

Women seem to be shortchanged as far as their own sexual and reproductive health is concerned. This is true not just in HIV prevention but for many other public health issues as well. Mitchell laments that even though sexuality is a part of human nature, people are scared to talk about sex. They are not comfortable about letting women make choices about what they want to put in their vagina.

“We want young women to have choices. But more often than not (we know this from reproductive health programmes) those choices are made by governments, by health providers and by their male partners— whether they can use an injectable contraceptive or the pill or an implant. Despite having so many wonderful family planning options, women cannot choose the one they want.

Many times their public health programme offers them just one or two choices because those who dictate their choices are often men. So, patriarchy, coupled with moralizing conservative governments, creates a complex ecosystem. But we need to inform people better, rather than moralise.

We need to talk about the female initiated prevention options and let the product user decide for herself. In fact, all adults, irrespective of their age or sex, should be free to make informed choices about which product to use for the benefit of their own health and not be influenced by their partners, peers, parents or by the moralising politicians, health providers and clinicians”, he says.

NEW TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OPTIONS SHOULD NOT MAKE US COMPLACENT:

People know that HIV is no longer a death sentence, that they can get a pill everyday and live healthy and long, and not infect others once they have undetectable viral load. This is an empowering and important message. But if not communicated properly, it could have unintended consequences of making individuals and governments complacent that getting HIV is no big deal. Let us not forget that HIV still is a big deal. It is an epidemic.

Even though we can treat it, but the more people are infected, the harder it would be to treat them all from a financial perspective. We have to stop new infections. So we got to find the right balance to not scare people, not stigmatise PLHIV, but at the same time make them realise that being HIV free is possible and is important.

Mitchell’s sane advice is to be laser sharp in our focus – not only around new technologies, but also upon the programmes and infrastructure that can deliver a whole range of products. We need to do both— technology development and building systems that address the fundamental structural barriers—in a comprehensive, integrated and sustained way.

If we do one and not the other, we cannot end the AIDS epidemic. We have to create a demand for all the available effective prevention tools and make all of them available to people so that they can choose what suits their needs best. But all this has to be in an ecosystem where one can talk about sex and about prevention of HIV in a human rights based comfortable way.